WHY don't they make new word processors to print on paper WITHOUT a computer? - Page 5 - Canadian TV, Computing and Home Theatre Forums
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post #61 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-04, 11:45 PM
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Same here but we had to use a rotary phone. That leads to to obvious question, "WHY don't they make new rotary phones to order pizza WITHOUT a computer?"
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post #62 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 02:21 AM
 
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Back then I was in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. We didn't even get a phone until 1975. Nowhere to my knowledge did any kind of delivery of food until well into the 80's.

To call Canada back then, we had to call the International Operator, at least 3 or 4 days in advance, give them a date, time and number we needed to call and on the appointed date and time our phone would ring. It was the International Operator confirming our call, at this point we were told the maximum time we could stay on, this was dependent on how busy the lines to Canada were, we were then put through. A few minutes before the end of the call, the Operator with interrupt, reminding us of the time remaining, then one final warning with 15 seconds to go, then dead air.

The UK was never as attached to the telephone as Canada was, at that time. I should also point out that a phone call ALWAYS cost you something, there was no such thing as a free call, even calling you next door neighbor, was charged a minimum, which I think back then was about 6p or 9 cents, the cost of the International call was astronomical.
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post #63 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 06:34 AM
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^^^^
Back in those days, I got the impression England was behind the times in a few things. However, while I never called England back then, I recall the costs were a few dollars. Of course, in those days, it was long distance to call across Winston Churchill Blvd., from Oakville to what is now Mississauga. And here's an example of how a call was made, before we got direct long distance dialing. Maybe we should bring back operators, so we don't have to dial our one calls. ;-)

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post #64 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 07:24 AM
 
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I wasn't around in 1949 but thanks for that clip, similar to the International Operator. Would the call between Oakville and Mississauga be due to a 416-905 thing at the time?

As for being behind, yes in some areas, I agree, nowadays, the TV services are just so confusing its crazy.
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post #65 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 09:32 AM
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^^^^
No, the whole area was 416. 905 didn't appear until 1993 and by that time you could make a local call from Oakville to Scarborough. Back in the 60s and earlier, long distance was expensive. The phone system was entirely analog, with vacuum tube and relay technology that required a lot of maintenance. So, even a short distance was "long distance". Direct distance dialing appeared here in the late '50s or so. It was advances in technology that enabled dropping long distance charges. I now can call anywhere in Canada toll free. I guess it was in the early 70s that the drop in charges started happening. Now, if they'd only drop the need to dial 1 first.

As for TV, I seem to recall that in England, the choices were either the BBC or the BBC. ;-)

Growing up in Oakville, I had 6 channels to choose from, 2 Toronto, 1 Hamilton and 3 Buffalo.

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post #66 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 11:34 AM
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Before packet switching networking was implemented for telephone, making a long distance call required two copper conductors from end to end, often by multiple operators working in tandem. There were a limited number of lines between Canada and the UK so there were long wait times for an open line. That's what made long distance so expensive and that's 'WHY they don't make new telephones to make long distance calls WITHOUT a computer.'

Modern fibre networking allows for millions of simultaneous phone calls over one conductor with all switching being done automatically by computers. Long distance costs for telephone companies have been reduced by several orders of magnitude. Costs to consumers have not kept pace, especially with well established telephone companies. The prices paid for long distance calls are close to 100% profit. Long distance charges are simply a way to pay for company management and investors top 1% lifestyles.
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post #67 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 11:51 AM
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^^^^
There's a bit more to it than that. Initially, transatlantic calls were over radio links. Then, in 1957 (IIRC) the first cable capable of voice calls was put in service. Next came satellite links, but because of the time it took to go up to the satellite and back, a satellite channel was typically paired with a cable channel, so that in one direction, the call would go through the satellite and through the cable in the other. All this was still analog. What really caused a big shift in telecom was the move to digital, starting in the mid '60s. This allowed cheaper, better quality calls, without all the fussy analog gear.

Incidentally, I started working in the telecom industry in 1972 and have worked with everything from analog, vacuum tube based, voice carriers to voice over IP and lots more in between. I have seen a lot of changes in that time.

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post #68 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 12:48 PM
 
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ExDilbert View Post
Modern fibre networking allows for millions of simultaneous phone calls over one conductor
Actually it is over a pair of fibres AFAIK, one transmit one receives. I could be wrong though....lol
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post #69 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 12:49 PM
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^^^^
It depends. There can be one or two fibres. If just one, then different wavelengths are used for each direction.

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post #70 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 01:39 PM
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For dedicated connections, yes. But what about packet switched networks and VoIP?
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post #71 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 01:54 PM
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I have set up systems with both single and dual fibres. Both can carry the exact same traffic. Major trunks would use 2 fibres, but the connection to the end customer is often a single fibre. Given the incredible bandwidth (~2 petabits/s) fibre supports, there's no problem with a using single fibre and different wavelengths. In fact, several wavelengths can be used, each supporting a separate connection. Coarse Divisision Wavelength Multiplexing (CWDM) is frequently used to connect to customers. The wavelengths are separated with filters based on diffraction grating.

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post #72 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 02:13 PM
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I am talking about individual phone calls. Each call would be multiplexed with possibly millions of others over a single connection. It would make no sense to establish a single, dedicated connection for each call. That would be done with packet switching to take advantage of the available bandwidth.
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post #73 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 02:30 PM
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^^^^
Even over copper, multiplexing was used, other than for "the last mile". Initially it was Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM). The old copper pair systems could carry 12 channels. Microwave links also used FDM, with hundreds of channels. Then, with digital systems, Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) was used and made the network more reliable and flexible. With TDM, there are DS0 carrying 64 Kb, DS1 (1.544 Mb) which is 24 DS0 and DS3 (45 Mb), 28 DS1. Next came SONET, which carried 1 or more DS3s, up to 192 of them at ~10 Gb/s. SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is carried over fibre. These days, with the shift to IP, yes there's a mix of packets from a variety of sources and, instead of using TDM & SONET, the entire bandwidth is just used to carry packets.

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post #74 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 03:02 PM
 
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See I was wrong.

Great direction this crazy thread has taken, very interesting indeed. Thanks
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post #75 of 81 (permalink) Old 2017-10-08, 01:28 AM
 
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Here is a distraction free smart typewriter that might come close to what you are looking for:
https://www.kickstarter.com/projects...tal-typewriter
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