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post #73 of (permalink) Old 2017-10-05, 02:30 PM
Join Date: May 2009
Location: Mississauga
Posts: 8,132
Even over copper, multiplexing was used, other than for "the last mile". Initially it was Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM). The old copper pair systems could carry 12 channels. Microwave links also used FDM, with hundreds of channels. Then, with digital systems, Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) was used and made the network more reliable and flexible. With TDM, there are DS0 carrying 64 Kb, DS1 (1.544 Mb) which is 24 DS0 and DS3 (45 Mb), 28 DS1. Next came SONET, which carried 1 or more DS3s, up to 192 of them at ~10 Gb/s. SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is carried over fibre. These days, with the shift to IP, yes there's a mix of packets from a variety of sources and, instead of using TDM & SONET, the entire bandwidth is just used to carry packets.

I haven't lost my mind. It's around here...somewhere...
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